It’s that time of year again! Check out these incredible images of snowflakes under a microscope by Alexey Kljatov.
Nissan Blade Glider Concept:
Who wouldn’t want a road going DeltaWing?
An ongoing sadistic project—by Athens-based architect and 3D modeler Katerina Kamprani—that opposes the de rigueur function of design, in a bid to redesign everyday things with a twist, rendering them almost useless but still usable.
This makes me so angry
Invasion: Type III Secretion System
Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas infect more than 300 different species worldwide. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria causes bacterial spot disease on pepper and tomato plants.
- The bacteria enter the plant intercellular spaces via natural openings.
- Bacterial surface structures allow the attachment to host cells.
- Xanthomonas produces the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan that protects the bacteria from environmental factors.
- An essential pathogenicity factor is the type III protein secretion system which spans the bacterial membranes…
- … And is associated with an extracellular pilus.
- The pilus is connected to a channel-like translocon that is inserted into the plant plasma membrane.
- The type III secretion system transports approximately 30 different bacterial effector proteins into the plant cell.
- Bacterial effector proteins are transported to different cellular compartments and manipulate host cellular pathways. Some effector proteins reach the plant cell nucleus and modify plant gene expression.
- Effector proteins suppress plant defense responses and promote bacterial multiplication at the infection site.
Video by Bernd Montag, Duc Phan Tran, Felix Herbst, Frank Montag.